Fahami Saya

Saturday, May 4, 2013

Analysis of Financial Ratio

Table X: Financial ratios of Analysis of Cycle and Carriage Berhad

Cycle and Carriage Berhad
Liquidity ratios
Current ratio

=   Current Assets
    Current Liabilities
RM 320 910
    RM 129 373
Quick ratio

= Current Assets - Inventory
         Currents Liabilities
= RM 320 910 – RM 76 362
               RM 129 373
Cash ratio

=           Cash
   Currents Liabilities
RM 37 818
    RM129 373
= 0.29
Asset management ratio

Days’ sales in inventory

=            356 days
   Inventory Turnover
=                  365 days
   (Cost of goods sold / Inventory)
=                365 days
  (RM 598 546 / RM 76 362)
=   365 days
= 47 days
Days’ sales in receivables

=            356 days     
   Receivable Turnover
=              365 days
  (Sales / Account receivable)
=              365 days
  (RM 598 546 / RM 51 539)
365 days
= 31 days
Total asset turnover

=    Sales
   Total Assets
= RM 598 546
   RM 320 910
= 1.87
Leverage ratios

Total debt ratio

Total Assets – Total  Equity
                  Total Assets
= RM 320 910 – RM 191 481
                 RM 320 910
= 0.40
Time interest earned ratio

=   EBIT
= RM 34 729
     RM 503
= 69.04
Cash coverage ratios

= EBIT + Depreciation
= RM 34 729 + RM 4 174
            RM 503
= 77.34
Profitability ratios

Profit margin

= Net Income
= RM   23 225
   RM 677 962
= 0.03
Return on asset

= Net Income
   Total Assets
= RM  23 225
   RM 320 910
= 0.07
Return on equity

= Net Income
   Total Equity
= RM  23 225
   RM 191 481
= 0.12
Market value ratios

Earnings per share (EPS)
=      Net Income
   Shares Outstanding
= RM 26 621
    100 745 shares
RM 0.2642
Price per earnings ratio (PE)

=    Price per share
   Earnings per share
= RM 1
   RM 0.2642
= 3.79 times
Market-to-book ratio

= Market value per share
     Book value per share
= Market value per share
(total equity/ outstanding shares)
=       RM2.85
   RM 191 481 / 100745
=  RM 2.85
    RM 1.90
= RM 1.50

Subject Matter in Islamic Contract

            As for the subject matter of contract, both the item and consideration, Islamic law stresses on the following matters:

  1. Lawfulness
      Lawfulness requires that the object must be lawful, that is something, which is permissible to trade. It must be legal value that is; its subject matter (mahall) and the underlying cause (sabab) must be lawful. It must not be proscribed by Islamic law, or a nuisance to public order or morality. Also inherent in the lawfulness of the object is the condition that the object must be legally owned (or authorized) by the parties to a contract.
The object of the agreement must be lawful. An agreement is unlawful, if it is:-
(i)  illegal
(ii) immoral
(iii)                         fraudulent
(iv)                        of a nature that, if permitted, it would defeat the provisions of any law
(v)causes injury to the person or property of another
(vi)                        Opposed to public policy.

  1. Existence
      The issues of existence presuppose that the object of a contract must be in existence at the time of contract. Thus, it is illegal for example to sell fetus.

  1. Deliverability
      Delivery indicates that the object must be capable of certain delivery. The classical jurists therefore, prohibit the sale of a camel which has fled a bird in the air or a fish in water.

  1. Precise determination
      The object of a contract must be determined precisely as to its essence, its quantity and its value.
e.       Legal obligations
 The parties must intend to create a legal obligation. The agreement sought to be enforced should contemplate legal relations between the parties to it.

f.       Free consent
The contracting parties must give their consent freely. 'Consent' means that the parties must agree about the subject matter of the agreement in the same sense and at the same time. Consent is said to be free if it is not induced by coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake. The absence of free consent would affect the legal enforceability of a contract.
g.      Not expressly declared void
An agreement expressly declared to be void under the Contract Act or under any other law, is not enforceable and is, thus, not a contract. The Contract Act declares void certain types of agreements such as those in restraint of marriage, or trade, or legal proceedings as well as wagering agreements.
h.      Certainty and possibility of performance
The terms of a contract must not be vague or uncertain. If an agreement is vague and its meaning cannot be ascertained, it cannot be enforced. Also, the terms of a contract must be such as are capable of performance. An agreement to do an impossible act is void and is not enforceable by law.
i.        Legal formalities
Generally, a contract may be oral or in writing. However, certain contracts are required to be in writing and may even require registration. Therefore, where law requires an agreement to be put in writing or be registered, the same must be complied with. For instance, the Indian Trusts Act requires the creation of a trust to be reduced to writing.

The Advantages of living Multi-cultural Heritage

A multi-racial society is a society where we have people of different races, ethnics living together. About 99% of the countries of the world are multi-racial. It is usually very pleasant to live in such type of societies if people know how to live together, on the contrary this can become hellish as well. Malaysia is one of Multi-cultural country that have unique ethnic and culture. There are many advantage of living in Multi-cultural Country.

Firstly, multi-racial society is a society, which is very rich in cultural heritage. People living in such type of societies get the opportunity to learn about other cultures and to adopt whatever they find beneficial for them. A multi-racial society is also a multi-linguist society so people living in such societies benefit from the richness of languages and are thus able to speak different languages. The fact that there are different races and ethnics living together in a multi-racial society there is also a wide variety of traditions, customs and festivals that are being carried out in such countries. So, in someway we can say that these countries are usually more lively and colorful than others.

Besides that, in a multi-racial society there is a fusion of cultures, it favorites people of different communities to get married which will biologically very good for their children. Their baby will be in good health. With the fusion of cultures food becomes national; people are able to eat a wider variety of food, learning to prepare them in different ways; for example farata, briani, Dhal puri. Celebrations of festivals become national. Festivals such as Hari Raya, Christmas, Depavali and other celebration are being celebrated by everyone in a multi-racial society.

Furthermore, multi-racial society teaches people how to respect and understand the religion and cultures of others. Therefore this leads to tolerance. It helps us to learn to become a good human being. To be good or bad does not depend on religion. Each of the great religion of the world speaks about love, peace and tolerance. In reality there no barriers between human beings, these so-called barriers are being created by human beings.

Multi-racial societies are usually very dynamic in cases in which there are no wars as people of different categories lives in peace. So, there are no violence, no wars, which is very good for the economical conditions of the country as when there are wars, the infrastructures are being destroyed and therefore there is a loss in the economical condition. It makes the country more dynamic because there are people who come from different places and this can help to develop new ideas about how to make our lives better. It is usually livelier as different festivals are being celebrated by different religion.

A multi-racial society is open so, tourists feel more at ease. Having good relationship with tourist, multi-racial societies thus have the chance to have help with other countries whenever they are in need. They are also will feel comfortable to know about other culture and at the same time we can know about there culture too.

So, the conclusion, multi-racial society teaches people how to respect and understand the religion and cultures of others. Therefore, this leads to tolerance. It helps us to learn to become a good human being. To be good or bad does not depend on religion. Each of the great religion of the world speaks about love, peace and tolerance. In reality there no barriers between human beings, these so-called barriers are being created by human beings.

A Place in the Sun for Everyone

A Place in the Sun for Everyone” is the speech given by Tunku Abdul Rahman once upon time ago. A person of any race can be racist and that person can even be racist against their own race. Of course society is to blame for racism. Race is a social construct. Sure, racial differences - like skin color and religion - are real, but they do not in and of themselves determine anything about who a person is or their life course. Society and culture do those things. The thinkers think that racist as openly acknowledging the difference in culture, religion or skin color.

A deeply racist society would not admit to being racist,’ A deeply racist society would never even allow the question to be asked and the answer to be published.’ There are pockets of racism amongst us, there is no doubt about that, (but) a lot of racism is motivated by fear and ignorance and on political motives. Racist, it all depends what you mean by it. If we go by traditional definition of superiority of one race over another then we have a problem. It usually put down the Indians, sometimes I make fun of the Chinese and sometimes my own race, the Malays too.

Besides that, Racism has been part of Malaysian political, economic, social and cultural realities ever since colonial times. Today, race has been so deeply institutionalized that it is a key factor determining benefits from government development policies, bids for business contracts, education policy, social policy, cultural policy, entry into educational institutions, discounts for purchasing houses and other official policies. It always held the belief that human beings will always stereo-type ideas so that we can organize our view of the world better. So if its not religion, its must be a race. If it is not race than it is territory and finally clans. But guess what? Brothers, sisters, parents and children fight too. Then what can we attribute the problem to?

So why fight it? As long as we respect each individual it will not course any problem. It is not directed at you personally, unless you feel that your association with your race compels you to feel insulted. Then you are just being racist yourself. Just because the Malays have NEP does not make them racists. The NEP is there to protect not to overcome other races. When I talk NEP, it is at macro level, not micro. And at macro level, it is no different from other affirmative action policies.

After 50 years the Malays are still lagging behind other races. The Malays are after all 'tuan rumah.' Look what happened to Singapore when the Malays left it to 'laissez faire.' They ended up giving it to the Chinese and the Malays there are still no better off. Singapore is a mistake the Malays do not wish to repeat. So you people on the net say its time to throw out racialism. It was admit that a lot of us are born to undeniably care more about our own race. But this is natural, and people with different races sure can live together (in fact, the differences should actually be a positive thing as it would produce better results when different races work together).

Therefore, it think like for now, people between races in Malaysia should discuss more about racism rather than trying to stay away from the topic, because I'm optimistic that as long as we work together, nothing is impossible. Let racialism and race-based system carry on. They are designed to be negotiated at a macro-level. On the micro side, if we see another human being as just that, then we have no problems. But if we start to associate the same human being as part of problem because they are part of a race or religion or political affiliation, then we have a problem.

So, for the conclusion we have to be united in one country so that the history will not appear again. We should learn from the past. It does not mean went we are look at the back we are not move forward and being greater.

Title : Old aged parents are better off staying at old folks home rather than staying with their  
Audience / Readers : Children of old aged parents.
Purpose : To persuade / convince my readers that old aged parents are not better off staying at old folks 
                  home rather than staying with their children.

Every single man in this world should be thanked to God for the precious gift in the world, off course, parents. Look at ourselves. Who we are without parents? Mom gave birth to us with pain and love, dad risk his live in order to provide any single thing for live to us. Only God knows the ‘value’ of their position as parents. But when they become older as the time goes by, should we send them to old folks home? Is it good to send them to old folk’s home for all their pain, love and care to raise us? I strongly disagree that old aged parents are better off staying at old folks home rather than staying with their children because staying with children can make them feel better and relieve and children can take care of them with full attention. However, it is undeniable that sometimes old aged parents are better off staying at old folks home rather than staying with their children because children maybe cannot look around them.

Staying with children can make them feel better and relieve. Old aged parents are keen to live in a better place with their children before they ‘gone’ to see the Creator. Actually they do not expect anything from children except love and attention. With the presence of the children, they feel appreciated and can stay strong to live until the end of time. Staying with children is better because they will feel comfortable. The fact is they are most happy too if we bring back only small good news to the home. Staying with children proves us that the relationship between family members never ends. Even though they become older and older, staying with children is one of the good method to tight the relationship among parents and children.

In addition, children can take care their old aged parents with full attention. As we all know, the data shows a record number of elderly parents are now living with their children nowadays. In the past seven years, in Malaysia, the number has surged by 62 percent. In fact, higher housing costs, the economy and the cost of medical care all play a role in the trend. And caring for an elderly parents is not easy, especially when you are trying to hold a job. Forty percent of caregivers who work full time report missing work on a regular basis as they try and meet the needs of an elderly loved one. All of these shows that children can ensure their parents live happily. Thy also not have to worry about their future because their children can become more close to them and take care them very well.

Opponents of this position argue that old aged parents are better off staying at old folks home rather than staying with their children since children cannot look around them because of working commitment, family and so on. Therefore, it is better to send off old aged parents to old folks home to reduce their burden instead of the children do not have a good relationship with their parents. This is because they think that their parents did not care for them enough when while they were young. So, they choose to do the same thing to their elderly parents. However, there is no guarantee if these old aged parents are living well when they are sending to the old folks home. Working commitment should not be an excuse because actually you can spend the time well with parents during after working hours, weekends and school holidays.

In conclusion, old aged parents stay with their children is better rather than sending them to the old folks home because children can take full attention and make them feel better. Therefore, we should not have all negative views towards caring of old aged parents as they are our parents that raised us very well without any doubt. What is more important, children need to manage their time well to look after their parents. Having presented my arguments, I once again totally disagree on the statement that ‘Old aged parents are better off staying at old folks home rather than staying with their children’.

Comparison and Contrast Essays

Topic: Public University or private university


Thesis Statement:
The different between public university and private university are based on programming, management and environment.

Body 1

Topic Sentences:
The private universities have offer variety of course compare to public university.

Supporting Details 1:
The private university offers courses that are interested and suitable with students now. From the statistic, more than 50% students will choose private universities because of there are many choices of courses.

Supporting Details 2:
Most employers will choose student that have degree certificated from public university as their workers because the course that they take in public university can fulfill the job market needed now.

This is can prove that student at private university can give what course that student interest on than public university.

Body 2

Topic Sentences:
The management in both categories of universities is different.

Supporting Details 1:
The management of student in public university is followed the code ethics.  For example, University Utara Malaysia’s student must wear a polite dress and follow the government workers dress code.

Supporting Details 2:
However, it is different in private university which is the student can wear all kind of dress but still not to attracted other people. This is show that the rules are not strict and it is can’t teach student more discipline.

Student in public university is more discipline than student in private university.

Body 3

Topic Sentences:
The environments in this both categories of universities are also different.

Supporting Details 1:
The environment in public university is more conducive and suitable with student life. The public university provides facilities that are suitable for student such as student residential and shopping mall. So that student can adapt their life easily in university.

Supporting Details 2:
However, private university more focus on development of technology and facilities in campus compare to the comfortable of their students. It is can be show that the private university only provides a few numbers of residential in their university.

The management of university should provide a good environment to their student to come out with an excellent product of students.


Restatement of Thesis Statement:
Programming, management and environment are the main aspects that make public university are different from private university.